Microbiology 2

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I think that this really helps actually.  Putting it into my own words and making it so that it's easy to read and understand.  i've just looked at the one on my student account.  its full of jibberish and seriously needs re-doing.  Hence where i come in!! :D


Food Microbiology:


Food born pathogens are the main cause of illness and death, mainly in those developing countries, causing around 1.8 millions deaths a year.  Rather a lot!  


As well as causing suffering and illness, these diseases cause great loss economically, as thousands of crops die yearly due to such food born pathogens.  


New Pathogens are likely to occurr because of evolution, change in the ways me produce and manufacture food and changes to the human host status.  


Of the numerous food born pathogens, the most well-know are probably E.coli & Salmonella.  Recently in the news for food poisening at schools (Wales?) where some students actually died.  


  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Vibrio sp.
  • Shigella sp.
  • Mycotoxins
  • Protozoan parasites
  • Enteric Viruses
  • Bacillus cereus
  • Campylobacter sp.
  • Clostridium botulinum & Clostridium perfringens
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Yersinia entertocolitica 


Obvious downsides to contamination?

Well obviously, the main ones are illness and loss of money.

Certain products may lose their reputation and it can take upto 10 years to restore confidence in a product.  So this would be mega bad for food companies and producers!


How can contamination occur?

Lots of ways really, but mainly it comes down to poor hygiene.

Surfaces (TOPOGRAPHY) - such things as walls and floors

- Ventilation (air con) and drains.

-open places such as counter tops

-closed places such as pipes (ventilation/drains really)


Basically common sense answers :) 


Microbial Biopolymers


Now what the hell does that mean??!!

Natural (bio) polymers that are synthesised (created) by microbes.  



  • Polysaccharides.  These are Polymeric Carbohydrate structures formed from repeating units.  
  • Polyesters. (may have seen this word on your clothing?) -Polyethylene terephthalate- or PET 
  • Polyamides.   These are monomers of amides joined together by peptideb bonds.

We use quite a few bipolymers in food production.  Sounds gross, but they're very helpful and without them we wouldn't be able to do half the stuff we do!


Ever heard of XANTHAN?  

This is created in plants by the plant-pathogenic bacteria Xanthamonas.  This bacteria produces the acidic exopolysaccharide xanthan gum.

It's used as a thickener, viscosifier, emulsifier and stabiliser in the food industry.  



This post is unfinished but i'm gonna post it anyway!!





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